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trafalgar square steckbrief

trafalgar square steckbrief

[15] Other nearby tube stations are Embankment connecting the District, Circle, Northern and Bakerloo lines, and Leicester Square on the Northern and Piccadilly lines. La station de métro la plus proche est Charing Cross, où circulent les trains des lignes Bakerloo  Northern. [2] From the reign of Richard II to that of Henry VII, the mews was at the western end of the Strand. After a fire in 1534, the mews were rebuilt as stables, and remained here until George IV moved them to Buckingham Palace. The event includes music and poetry readings, culminating in a bugler playing the Last Post and a two-minute silence at 11 am. [46], There are three busts of admirals against the north wall of the square. The first tree was 48 feet (15 m) tall, but more recently has been around 75 feet (23 m). Bâtiments remarquables et lieux de mémoire, Haut-commissariat du Canada au Royaume-Uni, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Trafalgar_Square&oldid=176835389, Voie à Londres figurant sur le plateau de Monopoly, Page avec coordonnées similaires sur Wikidata, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, À l’angle nord-ouest de la place se trouve la « 4e plinthe », un socle sur lequel des artistes contemporains, choisis par la mairie, peuvent exposer leur travail, depuis 1999, pour une durée de dix-huit mois, Plusieurs ambassades sont installées sur Trafalgar Square, dont les. [49], On the south side of Trafalgar Square, on the site of the original Charing Cross, is a bronze equestrian statue of Charles I by Hubert Le Sueur. [54][55] The other, of General Charles George Gordon by Hamo Thornycroft, was erected on an 18-foot high pedestal between the fountains in 1888. [47][48] The third, of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham (by Franta Belsky) was unveiled alongside them on 2 April 1967. [56], In 1841, following suggestions from the local paving board, Barry agreed that two fountains should be installed to counteract the effects of reflected heat and glare from the asphalt surface. It was moved to Kensington Gardens in 1862. Am Trafalgar Square, einem Muss für alle London-Besucher, steht die Nelson’s Column (ein Monument zum Gedenken an Admiral Horatio Nelson, der 1805 in der Schlacht von Trafalgar sein Leben ließ). Ces lions de bronze furent exécutés par Edwin Landseer, également peintre animalier, avec l'aide du sculpteur Carlo Marochetti. The scheme was initiated by the Royal Society of Arts and continued by the Fourth Plinth Commission, appointed by the Mayor of London. Le monument atteint 44 m de haut et se compose d'un piedestal, d'une colonne en granit cannelée, d'un chapiteau de bronze ainsi que d'une statue de 4,50 m de haut représentant l'amiral Horatio Nelson, qui perdit la vie en remportant la bataille de Trafalgar. [29], In 1940 the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson's Column to Berlin[b] after an expected German invasion, as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen (1972). [70]), The Christmas tree is decorated with lights that are switched on at a seasonal ceremony. Since 2003, a firework display centred on the London Eye and South Bank of the Thames has been provided as an alternative. Elle prend ce nom en 1830[2]. The construction includes two lifts for disabled access, public toilets and a café. [68] Nelson's column was repaired from years of damage from pigeon droppings at a cost of £140,000. [19][20][21], The site has been significant since the 13th century. [113] There is a life scale replica of the square in Bahria Town, Lahore, Pakistan where it is a tourist attraction and centre for local residents. [70] A Norway spruce (or sometimes a fir) is presented by Norway's capital city, Oslo as London's Christmas tree, a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II. It contains models of the National Gallery and Nelson's Column alongside miniature lions, fountains and double-decker buses. Prominent buildings facing the square include the National Gallery, St Martin-in-the-Fields, Canada House, and South Africa House. Trafalgar Square est une place très célèbre de Westminster à Londres en Angleterre dont le nom commémore la bataille de Trafalgar qui opposa les flottes franco-espagnole et britannique en 1805. [44] A bronze equestrian statue of George IV by Sir Francis Chantrey, originally intended to be placed on top of the Marble Arch,[24] was installed on the eastern plinth in 1844, while the other remained empty until late in the 20th century. [24] The plans included the demolition and redevelopment of buildings between St Martin's Lane and the Strand and the construction of a road (now called Duncannon Street) across the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields. On 8 February 1886 (also known as "Black Monday"), protesters rallied against unemployment leading to a riot in Pall Mall. Opened to the public in 1844, the square is one of London's main tourist attractions. After George IV moved the mews to Buckingham Palace, the area was redeveloped by John Nash, but progress was slow after his death, and the square did not open until 1844. (Sir Charles Barry was also responsible for the Houses of Parliament. ) Since 2014, New Year celebrations have been organised by the Greater London Authority in conjunction with the charity Unicef, who began ticketing the event to control crowd numbers. [2], The name "Trafalgar" is a Spanish word of Arabic origin, derived from either Taraf al-Ghar (طرف الغار 'cape of the cave/laurel')[3][4][5] or Taraf al-Gharb (طرف الغرب 'cape of the west'). To the south west is The Mall, which leads towards Buckingham Palace via Admiralty Arch, while Whitehall is to the south and the Strand to the east. Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, flanked by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens between 1937 and 1939[12] (replacements for two of Peterhead granite, now in Canada) and guarded by four monumental bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer. [84], Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar. [50], The two statues on the lawn in front of the National Gallery are the statue of James II (designed by Peter van Dievoet[51] and Laurence Vandermeulen for the studio of Grinling Gibbons)[52] to the west of the portico, and of one George Washington, a replica of a work by Jean-Antoine Houdon, to the east. [69], A Christmas ceremony has been held in the square every year since 1947. Fans camped in Trafalgar Square for up to three days before the premiere, despite torrential rain. Trafalgar Square was designed by Sir Charles Barry as a ceremonial and cultural space. It was cast in 1633, and placed in its present position in 1678. The old ones were presented to the Canadian government and are now located in Ottawa's Confederation Park and Regina's Wascana Centre. The Square's name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar, the British naval victory in the Napoleonic Wars over France and Spain that took place on 21 October 1805 off the coast of Cape Trafalgar. A competition was held and won by the architect William Railton, who proposed a 218-foot-3-inch (66.52 m) Corinthinan column topped by a statue of Nelson and guarded by four sculpted lions. [13] Also on the east is South Africa House, and facing it across the square is Canada House. Although Britain won, war hero Admiral Lord Horatio Nelson was killed during the battle on his ship, HMS Victory. [42][43], Barry's scheme provided two plinths for sculptures on the north side of the square. A popular activity was to feed them but this made them even more of a pest. Comme l’Abbaye de Westminster, Buckingham Palace, le Towe Bridge, Big Ben, etc., Trafalgar Square est un symbole de Londres. Trafalgar Square was designed by Sir Charles Barry. His plans left open the whole area of what became Trafalgar Square, except for a block in the centre, which he reserved for a new building for the Royal Academy. [29] Wilkins had proposed a similar solution with a central flight of steps. A larger riot ("Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887. [9], London Underground's Charing Cross station on the Northern and Bakerloo lines has an exit in the square. As a popular meeting and social … [73] On the twelfth night of Christmas, the tree is taken down for recycling. It was removed in 1943 and re-sited on the Victoria Embankment ten years later. [39], Barry was unhappy about Nelson's Column being placed in the square. Trafalgar Square est une place très célèbre de Westminster à Londres en Angleterre. [41], A major 18-month redevelopment of the square led by W.S. Depuis le début du XXe siècle, Trafalgar Square est le principal lieu de rassemblement des personnes se réclamant du droit démocratique de la libre expression au Royaume-Uni, tentant d'attirer le citoyen sur un sujet censé influencer l'opinion publique, tout comme Speakers' Corner. [43] More recently, there have been anti-war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan War and the Iraq War. The First Commissioner of Woods and Forests welcomed the plan because the fountains reduced the open space available for public gatherings and reduced the risk of riotous assembly. The lines had separate stations, of which the Bakerloo line one was called Trafalgar Square until they were linked and renamed in 1979 as part of the construction of the Jubilee line,[14] which was rerouted to Westminster in 1999. Trafalgar Square est situé au nord de l'intersection de Charing Cross, où se rejoignent Whitehall (rejoignant Parliament Square), The Strand, The Mall (rejoignant le palais de Buckingham via l'Admiralty Arch), Cockspur Street et Northumberland Avenue, tandis qu’au nord de la place débouchent Pall Mall East (prolongeant Pall Mall) et Duncannon Street. [28] Plinths were provided for sculpture and pedestals for lighting. Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, established in the early 19th century around the area formerly known as Charing Cross. [100] It was used for filming several sketches and a cartoon backdrop in the BBC comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus. It was the first film premiere ever to be held there. Au centre de cette place se trouve la colonne Nelson construite en 1843 pour honorer l'amiral Horatio Nelson mort au cours de la bataille alors qu'il dirigeait la flo… How did the Trafalgar Square get its name? Since its construction, it has been a venue for political demonstrations. [87][88], In the 21st century, Trafalgar Square has been the location for several sporting events and victory parades. [23], In 1826 the Commissioners of H.M. Woods, Forests and Land Revenues instructed John Nash to draw up plans for clearing a large area south of Kent's stable block, and as far east as St Martin's Lane. It is a large pedestrian square, bounded on three sides by roads. Access between the square and the gallery had been by two crossings at the northeast and northwest corners. In June 2002, 12,000 people gathered to watch the England national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected for the occasion. During Edward I's reign it hosted the King's Mews, running north from the T-junction in the south, Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City meets Whitehall coming north from Westminster. [40], The square has been Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens since 1996. [24], In the late-1930s it was decided to replace the pump and the centrepieces of the fountains.

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